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The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 90-B, Issue 8 | Pages 988 - 994
1 Aug 2008
Richardson J Hill AM Johnston CJC McGregor A Norrish AR Eastwood D Lavy CBD

Highly active anti-retroviral therapy has transformed HIV into a chronic disease with a long-term asymptomatic phase. As a result, emphasis is shifting to other effects of the virus, aside from immunosuppression and mortality. We have reviewed the current evidence for an association between HIV infection and poor fracture healing.

The increased prevalence of osteoporosis and fragility fractures in HIV patients is well recognised. The suggestion that this may be purely as a result of highly active anti-retroviral therapy has been largely rejected. Apart from directly impeding cellular function in bone remodelling, HIV infection is known to cause derangement in the levels of those cytokines involved in fracture healing (particularly tumour necrosis factor-α) and appears to impair the blood supply of bone.

Many other factors complicate this issue, including a reduced body mass index, suboptimal nutrition, the effects of anti-retroviral drugs and the avoidance of operative intervention because of high rates of wound infection. However, there are sound molecular and biochemical hypotheses for a direct relationship between HIV infection and impaired fracture healing, and the rewards for further knowledge in this area are extensive in terms of optimised fracture management, reduced patient morbidity and educated resource allocation. Further investigation in this area is overdue.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 77-B, Issue 3 | Pages 412 - 416
1 May 1995
Richardson J Gardner T Hardy Evans M Kuiper J Kenwright J

We studied the effect of 'dynamisation' on tibial fractures in six patients treated by the Dynamic Axial Fixator. In the early stages, peak cyclic movement at two to four weeks averaged 0.75 mm (0.19 to 1.02) on the medial side of the bone and 0.86 mm (0.21 to 1.25) on the lateral side. The amount of movement correlated with the applied load and the fracture stiffness. After unlocking the fixator column at six weeks, progressive closure of the gap averaged 1.3 mm (0.1 to 3.5). Cyclic movement is produced by early weight-bearing with the fixator column locked. Progressive closure occurs after unlocking the column, and is often associated with a reduction in cyclic movements. The effects of dynamisation on movement at the fracture site should be defined separately, in terms of cyclic movement and of progressive closure.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 76-B, Issue 3 | Pages 389 - 394
1 May 1994
Richardson J Cunningham J Goodship A O'Connor B Kenwright J

We measured fracture stiffness in 212 patients with tibial fractures treated by external fixation. In the first 117 patients (group 1) the decision to remove the fixator and allow independent weight-bearing was made on clinical grounds. In the other 95 patients (group 2) the frames were removed when the fracture stiffness had reached 15 Nm/degree. In group 1 there were eight refractures and in group 2 there was none (p = 0.02, Fisher's exact test). The time to independent weight-bearing was longer in group 1 (median 24 weeks) than in group 2 (21.7 weeks, p = 0.02). The greater precision of our objective measurement was associated with a reduction in refracture rate and in the time taken to achieve independent weight-bearing. We consider that a stiffness of 15 Nm/degree in the sagittal plane provides a useful definition of union of tibial fractures.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 75-B, Issue 1 | Pages 32 - 35
1 Jan 1993
Richardson J Roberts A Robertson J John P Sweeney G

Cephamandole levels in serum and drain fluid were measured in 32 knee replacement operations to determine the benefit of an intravenous dose of antibiotic at the time of tourniquet deflation. Concentrations of cephamandole in drain fluid were directly proportional to the serum concentration at the time of tourniquet release. A 'tourniquet-release' dose of antibiotic increased drain fluid concentration threefold.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 73-B, Issue 4 | Pages 654 - 659
1 Jul 1991
Kenwright J Richardson J Cunningham J White S Goodship A Adams M Magnussen P Newman J

Diaphyseal fractures of the tibia in 80 patients were treated by external skeletal fixation using a unilateral frame, either in a fixed mode or in a mode which allowed the application of a small amount of predominantly axial micromovement. Patients were allocated to each regime by random selection. Fracture healing was assessed clinically, radiologically and by measurement of the mechanical stiffness of the fracture. Both clinical and mechanical healing were enhanced in the group subjected to micromovement, compared to those treated with frames in a fixed mode possessing an overall stiffness similar to that of others in common clinical use. The differences in healing time were statistically significant and independently related to the treatment method. There was no difference in complication rates between treatment groups.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 70-B, Issue 3 | Pages 457 - 460
1 May 1988
Richardson J Ramsay A Davidson J Kelly I

It is difficult to establish the diagnosis of an injured shoulder if only one radiographic projection is used. We have compared two lateral projections, the Neer trans-scapular and the apical oblique in 80 patients; the radiographs were presented randomly to 10 casualty officers and nine radiologists. The apical oblique view was found to permit more accurate diagnosis of fractures and of dislocation by both groups.